THE PRESOCRATIC PERIOD
The Milesian Revolution: Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes
Miletus is in present-day Turkey.
Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes were from the city of Miletus in Asia Minor on the coast of the Aegean Sea. The lines of influence are not easy to reconstruct, but subsequent intellectual activity within the Presocratic Period seems to have radiated eastward from Miletus.
The use of the description 'Presocratic' originates with the German scholar, Hermann Diels. His magisterial collection of the evidence for early Greek philosophy, first published in 1903, is entitled Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (The Fragments of the Presocratics). This description of the period, which is now traditional, can suggest that the Presocratics lived before Socrates. In fact, he overlapped with some of them, and one, at least, Democritus, seems to have outlived him.
The Enlightenment Attitude
These dates are based on reports in later in the history. Herodotus (5th century BCE) says that Thales predicted a solar eclipse whose occurrence
changed the outcome of a war between the Lydians and the Medes. The eclipse is thought to be the one that
occurred in 585 BCE. Diogenes Laertius (3rd century CE) reports that Apollodorus of Athens (2nd century BCE) says that Anaximander was sixty-four in 546 BCE,
that Anaximenes was Anaximander's student, and that Apollodorus says that Anaximenes died in 528 BCE.)
• Thales of Miletus (active in the second half of the 7th century and the first decades of the 6th century BCE)
• Anaximander (active in the middle of the 6th century BCE)
• Anaximenes (active in the middle to the early part of the 6th century BCE)
Dates for the early Presocratics are estimated relative to the "acme" (ἀκμή) or "point of greatest achievement," which is assumed to be at age forty. "Thales (fl. c. 585 BCE)" assumes that he predicted the eclipse when he was around forty.
The Latin floruit is a form of floreo ("to bloom").
The Latin circa means "around."
Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin was making it increasingly clear that there were different ways of life and beliefs about the world. In the light of these alternatives, the received wisdom and traditional practices no longer seemed so obviously correct. At the same time, there was confidence that knowledge of the truth about things was possible if instead of accepting the authority of traditional thought, individuals were to think for themselves. In this way, in the ancient Greek city of Miletus, the circumstances were right for the introduction of a new, more objective way of thinking about the world and the place of human beings in it.
Hesiod and the Theologists
• Hesiod (active in the middle of 8th century BCE to middle of the 7th century BCE, younger contemporary of Homer).
Hesiod's Theogony and Works and Days are the earliest examples Greek "didactic" poetry.
διδακτικός means "apt at teaching, educational."
Theogony describes the origin of the world and the genealogies of the gods.
Works and Days describes daily life and work in an agricultural setting against the background of a religious calendar. In the history of Greek thought, Hesiod represents the older and traditional way of thinking about the world and the place of human beings. This way of thinking about the world conceives of things that happen in the world in terms of the pantheon of traditional gods. The following is an example of the sort of understanding that characterizes this tradition:
(1) Rain is a manifestation of the mind of Zeus.
(2) Zeus wills that it rain.
(3) It is raining.
"Zeus who thunders aloft..." (Hesiod, Works and Days 8 ).
Hesiod and the theologists, as Aristotle understands them,
identify the "starting-points" (ἀρχαί) in reality and
explain other things in terms of
The Latin principium is a translation of the Greek ἀρχή. For this reason, ἀρχή sometimes is translated as 'priniciple.' "The school of Hesiod, and all the theologists (θεολόγοι), ... make the starting-points (ἀρχὰς) gods or generated from gods" (Aristotle, Metaphysics III.4.1000a).
In this traditional way of thinking, events that unfold in a regular way are understood in terms of the intentional activity of a mind or intellect. Rain is a manifestation of the mind of Zeus. He wills that it rains. This happens in connection with the seasons and in the lives of plants and animals, with occasional severe storms or droughts when Zeus is angry or in certain moods.
Thales and the Milesian Naturalists
"Thales, the founder of this sort of philosophy (φιλοσοφίας), says that it [= the starting-point (ἀρχή) underlying all things] is water..."
(Aristotle, Metaphysics I.3.983b).
"Of those who say that the starting-point (ἀρχήν) is one and movable, to whom Aristotle applies the distinctive name of physicists (φυσικοὺς), some say it is limited; as, for instance, Thales of Miletus, son of Examyes, and Hippo who seems also to have lost belief in the gods. These say that the starting-point is water..." (Simplicius, following Theophrastus, Commentary on Aristotle's Physics IX.23.21).
The Milesian inquirers into nature (Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes) exemplify the enlightenment tradition that was taking root in the ancient world. Instead of relying on the traditional thought and received wisdom represented by the older school of Hesiod and the theologists, Thales and the Milesians tried to think about and explain things in a new way.
Theophrastus succeeded Aristotle as head of the Lyceum. Aristotle and Theophrastus are the source for most of what is known about the "beliefs" (δόξαι) of the Presocratics.
Simplicius of Cilicia (late 4th to mid 5th century CE) was one of the last Neoplatonists. The details of his connection to the Presocratics are complicated, but the primary points are these. The Neoplatonists part thought of themselves as recovering the true philosophy that Plato had been the last to see most clearly. The object was philosophical truth, not historical fact. To understand Aristotle, who was strongly influenced by Plato, but who also criticized Plato, the Neoplatonists settled for a middle ground that allowed them to treat Aristotle as an authority on logic and physics, but not on the higher realms of reality. Simplicius, in discussing Aristotle, quotes some of the Presocratic philosophers Aristotle discusses. For these quotations, Simplicius seems to rely on summaries in Theophrastus' work on the Presocratics. (Theophrastus (late 4th to late 3rd century BCE) succeeded Aristotle as head of the Lyceum, the school Aristotle founded in 335 BCE.) Theophrastus' work has almost been entirely lost, but Theophrastus' discussions of the Presocratics were summarized by Alexander of Aphrodisias. (Alexander of Aphrodisias (second to third century CE) was an Aristotelian commentator who aimed to articulate and defend Aristotle's philosophy.) These summaries too have been lost, but some extracts are preserved in Simplicius' commentaries on Aristotle's work. The Neoplatonists knew and consulted Alexander's work in their attempt to incorporate Aristotle's philosophy into their reconstruction of the true philosophy Plato had been the last to glimpse.
Thales and the Milesians tried to explain "natural" phenomena (as we now describe the phenomena in our debt to them) in terms of changes in an underlying "nature" (φύσις). Their effort became known as the "inquiry into nature" and their explanations were different from those in the older school of thought represented by Hesiod and the theologists.
This interpretation of the two schools of thought depends on Aristotle, who lived in 4th century BCE, roughly two hundreds after the eclipse Thales predicted. Aristotle refers to Thales and the Milesians as φυσιολόγοι and to the theologists as θεολόγοι (Metaphysics I.5.986b14; Metaphysics III.4.1000a9), as "those who talk about nature" and "those who talk about the gods."
The Explanations in terms of Nature
"Anaximenes... declares that the underlying nature... is air. It differs in rarity and density according to the things that it becomes. Becoming finer it comes to be fire; being condensed it comes to be wind, then cloud, and when still further condensed it becomes water, then earth, then stones, and the rest come to be out of these" (Simplicius, Commentary on Aristotle's Physics = DK 13 A 5).
The new explanations explain natural phenomenon in terms of an underlying nature. Sometimes the older explanations are said to be "mythological" and the newer explanations of Thales and the Milesian naturalists are said to be "rational." This terminology can be a little misleading. It can suggest that the older explanations do not make sense. Aristotle, for example, in Metaphysics III.4.1000a, talks this way about the explanations of Hesiod and the theologists. There is something right about his characterization, but this way of putting the contrast between the older and newer explanations can overstate the point. The kind of thinking we ordinarily think of as reason had been used for all sorts of practical and intellectual purposes for as long as there have been human beings, but it lacked the independence from religion and the status necessary to challenge the most traditional beliefs about the world and human beings. The Milesian inquiries into nature are an example of the change in the status of reason that was taking place in the ancient Greek world. The following is an example of an explanation in this new style:
(1) Rain is condensed air.
(2) The air here is now condensed.
(3) It is raining.
In this explanation, there is no mention of the traditional gods. Anaximenes explains rain in terms of (what he takes to be) the underlying nature. This challenged the traditional understanding of regularity and paved the way for the development of science as knowledge about "nature."
The Ancient Philosophical Tradition
In about 585 BCE (which is now more than twenty-five hundred years ago), a philosophical tradition
came into existence with Thales and the Milesians.
To understand whether the new inquiry into nature provided a more secure understanding of reality
than the understanding provided in the mythological tradition,
a tradition of asking and trying to answer philosophical questions arose.
This tradition begins with Thales and his fellow Milesian inquirers, but
they themselves may have not been the first philosophers in the tradition.
There is some indeterminacy in what counts as a "philosophical question,"
but given what is known about Thales and what philosophy is in the contemporary context of a university, it seems that
the questions he asked and tried to answer belong more to the discipline of physics than to that of philosophy.
The first figures in this philosophical tradition did not use the noun φιλοσοφία (which is often translated into English as 'philosophy') to describe the enterprise in which they took themselves to be engaged. The noun φιλοσοφία and its cognates are rare in the surviving literature until the time of Socrates and Plato in the 5th and 4th century BCE.
Perseus Digital Library:
Hesiod's Theogony, Works and Days
The noun ἱστορία was the traditional term for an investigation that aims for understanding. It transliterates as history and eventually became restricted to historical investigations due in part to the influence of the Histories of Herodotus (484-425 BCE). He describes his conclusions as the result of an "inquiry." He writes, in the opening sentence, that "[t]his is the display of the inquiry (ἱστορίης) of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, so that things done by man not be forgotten in time, and that great and marvelous deeds, some displayed by the Hellenes, some by the barbarians, not lose their glory, including among others what was the cause (αἰτίην) of their waging war on each other."
Plato has the character Socrates say that in his youth he was interested in the inquiry into nature. "When I was young, Cebes, I was tremendously eager for the kind of wisdom which they call inquiry about nature (περὶ φύσεως ἱστορίαν)" (Plato, Phaedo 96a).
The noun φύσις is the etymological root of the English word physics. The translation into English as nature is through the translation of φύσις into Latin as natura.
Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon:
ἀρχή, archē, noun, "beginning,"
θεόλογος, theologos, noun, "one who discourses about the gods,"
ἱστορία, historia, noun, "inquiry,"
φιλοσοφία, philosophia, noun, "love of wisdom," (Cicero, On Duties II.5),
φυσικός, physikos, adjective, "natural,"
φυσιόλογος, physiologos, noun, "one who discourses about nature,"
φύσις, physis, noun, "nature"
αἰτία, aitia, noun, "responsibility,"
αἴτιος, aitios, adjective, "responsible"
Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary:
natura, noun, "nature"
principium, noun, "a beginning"
Arizona State University Library. Loeb Classical Library:
Hesiod's Theogony, Works and Days
Early Greek Philosophy, Volume II: Beginnings and Early Ionian Thinkers, Part 1
Cicero, On Duties
Table of Contents
These lecture notes are derived from Ancient Greek Philosophy: From the
Presocratics to the Hellenistic Philosophers,
Questions or comments are welcome!