Course Description

The Hellenistic philosophers (the Epicureans, Stoics, and Academics) take their name from the Hellenistic Age, the period from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 to the end of the Roman Republic in 31 BCE. This is not a period in philosophy, but the Hellenistic philosophers share a feature that makes it reasonable to think of them as a group within the ancient philosophical tradition. They are united by their critical reaction to what they thought were the excesses of the prior classical tradition, the tradition of Plato and Aristotle. This critical reaction begins to disintegrate around 100 BCE as non-skeptical forms of Platonism undergo a resurgence and eventually give rise to early forms of Christianity. This disintegration traditionally marks the end of the Period of Schools.

The primary subject of this course is the debate between the Stoics and the Academics about the nature and possibility of knowledge. The Stoics and the Academics look back to Socrates. Although he did not resign himself to his ignorance, his questioning seemed to show that nobody had the knowledge required for a good life. The Stoics thought that Socrates was right not to resign himself to his ignorance because although this knowledge is difficult to obtain, it is not impossible. The Academics understood Socrates and his questioning very differently. They took a skeptical stand against the knowledge the Stoics thought was possible, and they pressed the Stoics in questioning in an effort to force them to withdraw their view that this knowledge is possible.

Steps of the Poikile Stoa
West end steps of the Ποικίλη Στοὰ. In the foreground is part of the foundation
for the Hellenistic Gate, which allowed access to the Agora from the north.

This course is a study of the reasons the Stoics and the Academics had for their positions. The primary emphasis is historical, but we will also explore some of the connections between the ancient dispute and contemporary epistemology. In addition to the dispute between the Stoics and the Academics, we will consider the line of thought according to which knowledge is to be understood in terms of memory. This understanding is part of the empiricist tradition that Plato and Aristotle mention and that it is tempting to see in the Epicureans.

Course Details

The final grade for the course is a function of participation in the seminar (50%), a bibliography project (25%), and a final paper (25%). Participation consists in presentations posted to the class, one for each unit. The presentation is an analysis of an aspect of one of the readings for the unit. The bibliography project is a summary of the arguments in five journal articles or book chapters connected to the reading in the seminar. You will need to use a library or other resource to find these articles or book chapters. The paper is a research project. You must state and argue for thesis in connection with a problem or argument from the reading. Participation in the seminar and the bibliography project are preparation for the paper. Each of the 5 presentations is worth 10 points. The bibliography project is worth 25 points. The paper is worth 25 points. There is no extra credit, but I am happy to work with students on independent projects. The point total determines the final letter grade: A+ (100-97), A (96-94), A- (93-90), B+ (89-87), B (86-84), B- (83-80), C+ (79-77), C (76-70), D (69-60), E (59-0).

Incompletes are given only to accommodate serious illnesses and family emergencies, which must be adequately documented.

Course Itinerary

Unit 1. The Stoic theory of knowledge.

Excerpts from The Hellenistic Philosophers (A.A Long & D.N. Sedley)
"Stoic epistemology" (Michael Frede)
"Stoics and Skeptics on Clear and Distinct Impressions" (Michael Frede)

(Read "Stoic epistemology" first. It is meant as an introduction.
"Stoics and Skeptics on Clear and Distinct Impressions" is an argument for a particular interpretation.
The Hellenistic Philosophers is a collection of primary texts and some analysis.

Read the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Stoicism for general background.)

Unit 2. The Academic Skeptics.

Excerpts from The Hellenistic Philosophers (A.A Long & D.N. Sedley)
"The sceptics" (Michael Frede)
"Academic epistemology" (Malcolm Schofield)
"Introduction," On Academic Scepticism (Charles Brittain)

("The sceptics" and "Academic epistemology" are meant as introductions.
On Academic Scepticism is an introduction to and analysis of Cicero's Academica.
Cicero's Academica is the primary evidence for understanding Academic skepticism.

Read the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entries on Ancient skepticism and the three Academics for background.)

Unit 3. Belief and knowledge in skeptical tradition.

Excerpts from The Hellenistic Philosophers (A.A Long & D.N. Sedley)
"The Skeptic's Beliefs" (Michael Frede)
"The Skeptic's Two Kinds of Assent and the Question of the Possibility of Knowledge" (Michael Frede)

"Does the skeptic have any beliefs" (3.4) from "Sextus Empiricus," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

("The Skeptic's Beliefs" and The Skeptic's Two Kinds of Assent and the Question of the Possibility of Knowledge" are now classics in the field.
Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonian skepticism are related to Academic skepticism but outside our primary focus.
You may also find the SEP entry helpful for constructing presentations on the Frede papers.)

Unit 4. What Clitomachus might have had in mind.

"Epistemolgical Nonfactualism and the Aproricity of Logic" (Hartry Field)
"Apriority as an Evaluative Notion" (Hartry Field)
"Epistemology without metaphysics" (Hartry Field)
“Epistemic Expressivism” (Matthew Chrisman)

(Not all of this relevant. Concentrate on the parts of the papers in which Field discusses and argues for nonfactualism. Chrisman's paper is supplementary.)

• "The Clitomachian and Metrodorian/Philonian Justifications of Academic Assent." (I will make a draft available.)

Unit 5. The rejection of the classical notion of reason.

"An empiricist view of knowledge: memorism" (Michael Frede)

(This is outside our primary focus but extremely interesting.)

Contact Information

Thomas A. Blackson
Philosophy Faculty
School of Historical, Philosophical, and Religious Studies
Lattie F. Coor Hall, room 3356
PO Box 874302
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ. 85287-4302,, www.public.asu/~blackson